Research behind the concept


Here you can find a list of all the research and resources behind the concept:

1.Prof. Brant, C. (2015) The Neurogenesis Diet and Lifestyle

2. Casadesus, G., Shukitt-Hale, B., Stellwagen, H. M., et al. (Oct 2004). “Modulation of hippocampal plasticity and cognitive behavior by short-term blueberry supplementation in aged rats.” Nutritional Neuroscience. 7(5–6):309–16.

3. Acosta, S., Jernberg, J., Sanberg, C. D., Sanberg, P. R., Small, B. J., Gemma, C., Bickford, P. C. (Oct 2010). Rejuvenation Res. 13(5):581–8. doi: 10.1089/rej.2009.1011. Epub 29 Jun 2010.

4. Joseph, J. A., Shukitt-Hale, B., Lau, F. C. “Fruit polyphenols and their effects on neuronal signaling and behavior in senescence.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.

5. Joseph, J. A., Denisova, N. A., Arendash, G., et al. (June 2003). “Blueberry supplementation enhances signaling and prevents behavioral deficits in an Alzheimer disease model.” Nutritional Neuroscience. 6(3):153–62.

6. Joseph, J. A., Carey, A., Brewer, G. J., Lau, F. C., Fisher, D. R. (July 2007). “Dopamine and abeta-induced stress signaling and decrements in Ca2+ buffering in primary neonatal hippocampal cells are antagonized by blueberry extract.” Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. 11(4):433–46.

7. Devore, E. E., Kang, J. H., Breteler, M. M., Grodstein, F. A. (July 2012). “Dietary intakes of berries and flavonoids in relation to cognitive decline.” Neurology. 72(1):135–43. doi: 10.1002/ana.23594. Epub 26 Apr 2012.

8. Joseph, J. A., Shukitt-Hale, B., Willis, L. M. (Sep 2009). “Grape juice, berries, and walnuts affect brain aging and behavior.” Journal of Nutrition. 139(9):1813S–7S. doi: 10.3945/jn.109.108266. Epub 29 Jul 2009. Review.

9. Dai, Q., Borenstein, A. R., Wu, Y., Jackson, J. C., Larson, E.B. (Sep 2006). “Fruit and vegetable juices and Alzheimer’s disease: The kame project.” American Journal of Medicine. 119(9):751–9.

10. Lau, F. C., Shukitt-Hale, B., Joseph, J. A. (2007). “Nutritional intervention in brain aging: Reducing the effects of inflammation and oxidative stress.” Subcell Biochemistry. 42:299–318.

11. McGeer, P. L., McGeer, E. G. (May 2004). “Inflammation and neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease.” Parkinsonism Related Disorders. 10 Suppl 1:S3–S7.

12. Joseph, J. A., Denisova, N. A., Arendash, G., et al. (June 2003). “Blueberry supplementation enhances signaling and prevents behavioral deficits in an Alzheimer disease model.” Nutritional Neuroscience. 6(3):153–62.

13. Joseph, J. A., Carey, A., Brewer, G. J., Lau, F. C., Fisher, D. R. (July 2007). “Dopamine and abeta-induced stress signaling and decrements in Ca2+ buffering in primary neonatal hippocampal cells are antagonized by blueberry extract.” Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. 11(4):433–46.

14. Shukitt-Hale, B., Carey, A. N., Jenkins, D., Rabin, B. M., Joseph, J. A. (Aug 2007). “Beneficial effects of fruit extracts on neuronal function and behavior in a rodent model of accelerated aging.” Neurobiological Aging. 28(8):1187–94.

15. Suh, N., Paul, S., Hao, X., et al. (1 Jan 2007). “Pterostilbene, an active constituent of blueberries, suppresses aberrant crypt foci formation in the azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis model in rats.” Clinical Cancer Research. 13(1):350–5.

16. Heinonen, M. (June 2007). “Antioxidant activity and antimicrobial effect of berry phenolics—a Finnish perspective.” Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. 51(6):684–91.

17. Russell, W. R., Labat, A., Scobbie, L., Duncan, S.H. (June 2007). “Availability of blueberry phenolics for microbial metabolism in the colon and the potential inflammatory implications.” Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. 51(6):726–31.

18. Zafra-Stone, S., Yasmin, T., Bagchi, M., et al. (June 2007). “Berry anthocyanins as novel antioxidants in human health and disease prevention.” Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. 51(6):675–83.

19. (26 Mar 2007). Neuroscience Letters. 415(2):154–158. Epub 7 January 2007. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2007.01.010. PMCID: PMC1892224. NIHMSID: NIHMS20377.

20. Beltz, B. S., Tlusty, M. F., Benton, J. L., and Sandeman, D. C. “Omega-3 fatty acids upregulate adult neurogenesis.”

21. (21b.) Conklin, S. M., Gianaros, P. J., Brown, S. M., et al. (29 June 2007). “Long-chain omega-3 fatty acid intake is associated positively with corticolimbic gray matter volume in healthy adults.” Neuroscience Letters. 421(3):209–12.

22. Wurtman, R. J., Cansev, M., Sakamoto, T., Ulus, I. H. (2009). “Use of phosphatide precursors to promote synaptogenesis.” Annual Review of Nutrition. 29:59–87.

23. Wurtman, R. J., Cansev, M., Ulus, I. H. (Mar 2009). “Synapse formation is enhanced by oral administration of uridine and DHA, the circulating precursors of brain phosphatides.” Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging. 13(3):189–97.

24. (24b.) Heinrichs, S. C. (Apr 2010). “Dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for optimizing neuronal structure and function.” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 54(4):447–56.

25. Hibbeln, J. (2001). “Interview with Life Extension magazine October report.”

26. Jockers, D. (2012). “Is your brain getting enough of this nutrient?” (11/05/2012).

27. Beltz, B. S., Tlusty, M. F., Benton, J. L., Sandeman, D. C. (2007). “Omega-3 fatty acids upregulate adult neurogenesis.” Neuroscience Letters.

28. Freemantle, E., Vandal, M., Tremblay-Mercier, J., Tremblay, S., Blachere, J. C., Begin, M. E., Brenna, J. T., Windust, A., Cunnane, S. C. (2006). “Omega-3 fatty acids, energy substrates, and brain function during aging.” Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. 75:213–220.

29. Gomez-Pinilla, F. (2008). “Brain foods: The effects of nutrients on brain function.” Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 9:568–578.

30. (Aug 2012). Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 56(8):1292–303. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201200035. Epub 13 Jun 2012.

31. Wang, Y., Li, M., Xu, X., Song, M., Tao, H., Bai, Y. “Green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) promotes neural progenitor cell proliferation and sonic hedgehog pathway activation during adult hippocampal neurogenesis.”

32. Goepp, J. (Apr 2008). “New research on the benefits of green tea.” Life Extension.

33. Yoo, K. Y., Choi, J. H., Hwang, I. K., Lee, C. H., Lee, S. O., Han, S. M., Shin, H. C., Kang, I. J., Won, M. H. (July 2010). “Epigallocatechin-3-gallate increases cell proliferation and neuroblasts in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in adult mice.” Phytotherapy Research. 24(7):1065–70. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3083.

34. Han, M. E., Park, K. H., Baek, S. Y., Kim, B. S., Kim, J. B., Kim, H. J., Oh, S. O. (18 May 2007). “Inhibitory effects of caffeine on hippocampal neurogenesis and function.” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 356(4):976–80. Epub 26 Mar 2007.

35. Wentz, C. T., Magavi, S. S. (May–June 2009). “Caffeine alters proliferation of neuronal precursors in the adult hippocampus.” Neuropharmacology. 56(6–7):994–1000. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2009.02.002. PMID: 19217915. Epub 13 Feb 2009.

36. (36b.) Kim, S. J., Son, T. G., Park, H. R., Park, M., Kim, M. S., Kim, H. S., Chung, H. Y., Mattson, M. P., Lee, J. (23 May 2008). “Curcumin stimulates proliferation of embryonic neural progenitor cells and neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus.” Journal of Biological Chemistry. 283(21):14497–505. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M708373200. Epub 24 Mar 2008.

37. Ng, T. P., Chiam, P. C., Lee, T., Chua, H. C., Lim, L., Kua, E. H. (1 Nov 2006). “Curry consumption and cognitive function in the elderly.” American Journal of Epidemiology. 164(9):898–906. Epub 26 Jul 2006.

38. Bhutani, M. K., Bishnoi, M., Kulkarni, S. K. (Mar 2009). “Anti-depressant like effect of curcumin and its combination with piperine in unpredictable chronic stress-induced behavioral, biochemical and neurochemical changes.” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 92(1):39–43. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2008.10.007. Epub 25 Oct 2008.

39. Singh, N., Bhalla, M., de Jager, P., Gilca, M. (2011). “An overview on ashwagandha: A Rasayana (rejuvenator) of Ayurveda.” African Journal of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 8(5 Suppl):208–13. doi: 10.4314/ajtcam.v8i5S.9. Epub 3 July 2011.

40. Singh, N., Bhalla, M., de Jager, P., Gilca M. (2011). “An overview on ashwagandha: A rasayana (rejuvenator) of Ayurveda.” African Journal of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 8(5 suppl):208–13. doi: 10.4314/ajtcam.v8i5S.9. Epub 3 Jul 2011.

41. Gupta, G. L., Rana, A. C. (Oct–Dec 2007). “Protective effect of Withania somnifera dunal root extract against protracted social isolation induced behavior in rats.” Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 51(4):345–53.

42. Rivera, P., Pérez-Martín, M., Pavón, F. J., Serrano, A., Crespillo, A., Cifuentes, M., López-Ávalos, M. D., Grondona, J. M., Vida, M., Fernández-Llebrez, P., de Fonseca, F. R., Suárez, J. (31May 2013). “Pharmacological administration of the isoflavone daidzein enhances cell proliferation and reduces high fat diet-induced apoptosis and gliosis in the rat hippocampus.” PLoS One. 8(5):e64750. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064750.

43. Zheng, J., Zhang, P., Li, X., Lei, S., Li, W., He, X., Zhang, J., Wang, N., Qi, C., Chen, X., Lu, H., Liu, Y. (12 Feb 2013). “Post-stroke estradiol treatment enhances neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of rats after permanent focal cerebral ischemia.” Neuroscience. 231:82–90. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.11.042. Epub 2 Dec 2012.

44. Bayer, J., Rune, G., Kutsche, K., Schwarze, U., Kalisch, R., Büchel, C., Sommer, T. (Feb 2013). “Estrogen and the male hippocampus: Genetic variation in the aromatase gene predicting serum estrogen is associated with hippocampal gray matter volume in men.” Hippocampus. (2):117–21. doi: 10.1002/hipo.22059. Epub 6 Aug 2012.

45. Barha, C. K., Galea, L. A. (Mar 2013). “The hormone therapy, Premarin, impairs hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory and reduces activation of new granule neurons in response to memory in female rats.” Neurobiology of Aging. 34(3):986–1004. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2012.07.009. Epub 28 Aug 2012.

46. Okamoto, M., Hojo, Y., Inoue, K., Matsui, T., Kawato, S., McEwen, B. S., Soya, H. (7 Aug 2012). “Mild exercise increases dihydrotestosterone in hippocampus providing evidence for androgenic mediation of neurogenesis.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA. 109(32):131005. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1210023109. Epub 17 Jul 2012.

47. Hall, Z. J., Macdougall-Shackleton, S. A. (2012). “Influence of testosterone metabolites on song-control system neuroplasticity during photostimulation in adult European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).” PLoS One. 7(7):e40060. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040060. Epub 6 Jul 2012.

48. Barker, J. M., Ball, G. F., Balthazart, J. (7 Nov 2013). “Anatomically discrete sex differences and enhancement by testosterone of cell proliferation in the telencephalic ventricle zone of the adult canary brain.” Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy. doi: pii: S0891–0618(13)00089-6. 10.1016/j.jchemneu.2013.10.005.

49. Spritzer, M. D., Ibler, E., Inglis, W., Curtis, M. G. (10 Nov 2011). “Testosterone and social isolation influence adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of male rats.” Neuroscience. 195:180–90. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.08.034. Epub 19 Aug 2011.

50. Lee, C. H., Kim, J. M., Kim, D. H., Park, S. J., Liu, X., Cai, M., Hong, J. G., Park, J. H., Ryu, J. H. (Sep 2013). “Effects of sun ginseng on memory enhancement and hippocampal neurogenesis.” Phytotherapy Research. 27(9):1293-9. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4873. Epub 29 Oct 2012.

51. Lin, T., Liu, Y., Shi, M., Liu, X., Li, L., Liu, Y., Zhao, G. (1 Aug 2012). “Promotive effect of ginsenoside Rd on proliferation of neural stem cells in vivo and in vitro.” Journal Ethnopharmacology. 142(3):754–61. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.05.057. Epub 7 Jun 2012.

52. Jiang, B., Xiong, Z., Yang, J., Wang, W., Wang, Y., Hu, Z. L., Wang, F., Chen, J. G. (July 2012). “Antidepressant-like effects of ginsenoside Rg1 are due to activation of the BDNF signalling pathway and neurogenesis in the hippocampus.” British Journal of Pharmacology. 166(6):1872–87. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01902.x.

53. Zheng, G. Q., Cheng, W., Wang, Y., Wang, X. M., Zhao, S. Z., Zhou, Y., Liu, S. J., Wang, X. T. (27 Jan 2011). “Ginseng total saponins enhance neurogenesis after focal cerebral ischemia.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 133(2):724–8. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.01.064. Epub 10 Nov 2010.

54. Zainuddin, M. S. A., & Thuret, S. (2012). “Nutrition, adult hippocampal neurogenesis and mental health.” British Medical Bulletin. 103, 1, p. 89–114. DOI:10.1093/bmb/lds021.”

55. Scholey, A., Owen, L. (Oct 2013). “Effects of chocolate on cognitive function and mood: A systematic review.” Nutrition Review. 71(10):665–81. doi: 10.1111/nure.12065.

56. Sokolov, A. N., Pavlova, M. A., Klosterhalfen, S., Enck, P. (26 June 2013). “Chocolate and the brain: Neurobiological impact of cocoa flavanols on cognition and behavior.” Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. pii: S0149–7634(13)00168–1. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.06.013.

57. (57b.) Tchantchou, F., Lacor, P. N., Cao, Z., Lao, L., Hou, Y., Cui, C., Klein, W. L., Luo, Y. (2009). “Stimulation of neurogenesis and synaptogenesis by bilobalide and quercetin via common final pathway in hippocampal neurons.” Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. 18(4):787–98. doi: 10.3233/JAD-2009-1189.

58. Yoo, D. Y., Nam, Y., Kim, W., Yoo, K. Y., Park, J., Lee, C. H., Choi, J. H., Yoon, Y. S., Kim, D. W., Won, M. H., Hwang, I. K. (Jan 2011). “Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on promotion of neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in C57BL/6 mice.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. 73(1):71–6. Epub 30 Aug 2010.

59. Zainuddin, M. S. A. & Thuret, S. (2012). “Nutrition, adult hippocampal neurogenesis and mental health.” British Medical Bulletin. 103 (1) 89–114. doi: 10.1093/bmb/lds021.

60. Park, H. R., Kong, K. H., Yu, B. P., Mattson, M. P., Lee, J. (14 Dec 2012). “Resveratrol inhibits the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and hippocampal neurogenesis.” Journal of Biological Chemistry. 287(51):42588–600. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.406413. Epub 26 Oct 2012.

61. Moriya, J., Chen, R., Yamakawa, J., Sasaki, K., Ishigaki, Y., Takahashi, T. (2011). “Resveratrol improves hippocampal atrophy in chronic fatigue mice by enhancing neurogenesis and inhibiting apoptosis of granular cells.” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 34(3):354–9.

62. Wang, J., Gallagher, D., DeVito, L. M., Cancino, G. I., Tsui, D., He, L. Keller, G. M., Frankland, P. W., Kaplan, D. R., Miller, F. D. (6 July 2012). “Metformin activates an atypical PKC-CBP pathway to promote neurogenesis and enhance spatial memory formation.” Cell Stem Cell. 11(1): 23–35.

63. (63b.) Funakoshi, H., Kanai, M., and Nakamura, T. (2011). “Modulation of tryptophan metabolism, promotion of neurogenesis and alteration of anxiety-related behavior in tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase-deficient mice.” International Journal of Tryptophan Research. 4:7–18. Epub 11 Apr 2011. doi: 10.4137/IJTR.S5783. PMCID: PMC3195223.

64. Qu, Z., Zhou, Y., Zeng, Y.,* Lin, Y., Li, Y., Zhong, Z., and Chan, W. Y., (2012). “Protective effects of a Rhodiola crenulata extract and salidroside on hippocampal neurogenesis against streptozotocin-induced neural injury in the rat.” PLoS One. 7(1):e29641. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029641. PMCID: PMC3250459. Epub 3 Jan 2012.

65. Fiorentini, A., Rosi, M. C., Grossi, C., Luccarini, I., Casamenti, F. (2010). “Lithium improves hippocampal neurogenesis, neuropathology and cognitive functions in APP mutant mice.” PLoS One. 5(12):e14382. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014382. Epub 20 Dec 2010.

66. Sarlak, G., Jenwitheesuk, A., Chetsawang, B., Govitrapong, P. (20 Sep 2013). “Effects of melatonin on nervous system aging: Neurogenesis and neurodegeneration.” Journal of Pharmacological Sciences. 123(1):9–24. Epub 27 Aug 2013.

67. Ramírez-Rodríguez, G., Vega-Rivera, N. M., Benítez-King. G., Castro-García, M., Ortíz-López, L. (14 Nov 2012). “Melatonin supplementation delays the decline of adult hippocampal neurogenesis during normal aging of mice.” Neuroscience Letters. 530(1):53–8. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2012.09.045. Epub 6 Oct 2012.

68. Chern, C. M., Liao, J. F., Wang, Y. H., Shen, Y. C. (1 May 2012). “Melatonin ameliorates neural function by promoting endogenous neurogenesis through the MT2 melatonin receptor in ischemic-stroke mice.” Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 52(9):1634–47. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.01.030. Epub 10 Feb 2012.

69. Kim, H. G., Oh, M. S. (14 July 2013). “Memory-enhancing effect of Mori Fructus via induction of nerve growth factor.” British Journal of Nutrition. 110(1):86–94. doi: 10.1017/S0007114512004710. Epub 27 Nov 2012.

70. Zhuang, P., Zhang, Y.,* Cui, G., Bian, Y., Zhang, M., Zhang, J., Liu, Y., Yang, X., Isaiah, A. O., Lin, Y., and Jiang, Y. (2012). “Direct stimulation of adult neural stem/progenitor cells in vitro and neurogenesis in vivo by salvianolic acid B.” PLoS One. 7(4):e35636. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035636 PMCID: PMC3335811. Epub 24 Apr 2012.

71. Lau, B. W., Lee, J. C., Li, Y., Fung, S. M., Sang, Y. H., Shen, J., Chang, R. C., So, K. F. (2012). “Polysaccharides from wolfberry prevents corticosterone-induced inhibition of sexual behavior and increases neurogenesis.” PLoS One. 7(4):e33374. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033374. Epub 16 Apr 2012.

72. Kondziella, D., Strandberg, J., Lindquist, C., Asztely. F. (26 Jan 2011). “Lamotrigine increases the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the rat hippocampus.” NeuroReport. 22(2):97–100. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e328342d2fa.

73. Yoo, D. Y., Kim, W., Yoo, K. Y., Lee, C. H., Choi, J. H., Yoon, Y. S., Kim, D. W., Won, M. H., Hwang, I. K. (May 2011). “Grape seed extract enhances neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in C57BL/6 mice.” Phytotherapy Research. 25(5):668–74. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3319. Epub 29 Oct 2010.

74. Yang, W. M., Shim, K. J., Choi, M. J., Park, S. Y., Choi, B. J., Chang, M. S., Park, S. K. (3 Oct 2008). “Novel effects of Nelumbo nucifera rhizome extract on memory and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampus.” Neuroscience Letters. 443(2):104–7. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2008.07.020. Epub 11 Jul 2008.

75. Wen, J., Yang, B. N., Ren, D. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. (Mar 2010). “Effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides on neurogenesis and learning & amp: Memory in manganese poisoning mice.” 30(3):295–8. Chinese.

76. Miao, Y., Ren, J., Jiang, L., Liu, J., Jiang, B., Zhang, X. (Nov 2013). “α-lipoic acid attenuates obesity-associated hippocampal neuroinflammation and increases the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in ovariectomized rats fed a high-fat diet.” International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 32(5):1179–86. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2013.1482. Epub 5 Sep 2013.

77. Cimini, A., Gentile, R., D’Angelo, B., Benedetti, E., Cristiano, L., Avantaggiati, M. L., Giordano, A., Ferri, C., Desideri, G. (Oct 2013). “Cocoa powder triggers neuroprotective and preventive effects in a human Alzheimer’s disease model by modulating BDNF signaling pathway.” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 114(10):2209–20. doi: 10.1002/jcb.24548.

78. Abumaria, N., Yin, B., Zhang, L., Li, X. Y., Chen, T., Descalzi, G., Zhao, L., Ahn, M., Luo, L., Ran, C., Zhuo, M., and Liu, G. (19 Oct 2011). “Effects of elevation of brain magnesium on fear conditioning, fear extinction, and synaptic plasticity in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex and lateral amygdala.” Journal of Neuroscience. 31(42):14871–14881. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3782–11.2011.

79. Liu, G. (2012). “Prevention of cognitive deficits in Alzheimer’s mouse model by elevating brain magnesium.” Molecular Neurodegeneration. 7(suppl 1):L24. doi: 10.1186/1750-1326-7-S1-L24. Epub 7 Feb 2012.

80. Leyhe, T., Eschweiler, G. W., Stransky, E., Gasser, T., Annas, P., Basun, H., Laske, C. (2009). “Increase of BDNF serum concentration in lithium treated patients with early Alzheimer’s disease.” Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. 16(3):649–56. doi: 10.3233/JAD-2009-1004.

81. Hashimoto, R., Takei, N., Shimazu, K., Christ, L., Lu, B., Chuang, D. M. (Dec 2002). “Lithium induces brain-derived neurotrophic factor and activates TrkB in rodent cortical neurons: An essential step for neuroprotection against glutamate excitotoxicity.” Neuropharmacology. 43(7):1173–9.

82. Corona, C., Frazzini, V., Silvestri, E., Lattanzio, R., La Sorda, R., Piantelli, M., Canzoniero, L. M. T., Ciavardelli, D., Rizzarelli, E., Sensi, S. L. (2011). “Effects of dietary supplementation of carnosine on mitochondrial dysfunction, amyloid pathology, and cognitive deficits in 3xTg-AD mice.” PLoS One. 6(3):e17971. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017971. Epub 15 March 2011.

83. Murakami, T., Furuse, M. (July 2010). “The impact of taurine- and beta-alanine-supplemented diets on behavioral and neurochemical parameters in mice: Antidepressant versus anxiolytic-like effects.” Amino Acids. 39(2):427–34. doi: 10.1007/s00726-009-0458-x. Epub 23 Jan 2010.

84. Kiraly, S. J., Kiraly, M. A., Hawe, R. D., and Makhani, N. (2006). “Vitamin D as a neuroactive substance: Review.” Scientific World Journal. 6:125–139.

85. Li, L. F., Lu, J., Li, X. M., Xu, C. L., Deng, J. M., Qu, R., Ma, S. P. (Aug 2012). “Antidepressant-like effect of magnolol on BDNF up-regulation and serotonergic system activity in unpredictable chronic mild stress treated rats.” Phytotherapy Research. 26(8):1189–94. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3706. Epub 5 Jan 2012.

86. Li, S., Wang, C., Wang, M., Li, W., Matsumoto, K., Tang, Y. (20 Mar 2007). “Antidepressant like effects of piperine in chronic mild stress treated mice and its possible mechanisms.” Life Science. 80(15):1373–81. Epub 12 Jan 2007.

87. Kittur, S., Wilasrusmee, S., Pedersen, W. A., Mattson, M. P., Straube-West, K., Wilasrusmee, C., Lubelt, B., Kittur, D. S. (June 2002). “Neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) on neurons in culture.” Journal of Molecular Neuroscience. 18(3):265–9.

88. Tsai, S. J. (2006). “Cysteamine-related agents could be potential antidepressants through increasing central BDNF levels.” Medical Hypotheses. 67(5):1185–8. Epub Jun 22, 2006.

89. Moriguchi, S., Shinoda, Y., Yamamoto, Y., Sasaki, Y., Miyajima, K., Tagashira, H., Fukunaga, K. (8 Apr 2013). “Stimulation of the sigma-1 receptor by DHEA enhances synaptic efficacy and neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of olfactory bulbectomized mice.” PLoS One. 8(4):e60863. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060863.

90. (July 2006). “Therapeutic potential of neurogenesis for prevention and recovery from Alzheimer’s disease: Allopregnanolone as a proof of concept neurogenic agent.” Current Alzheimer’s Research. 3(3):185–90.

91. (Apr 2006). “Effects of huperzine A on memory deficits and neurotrophic factors production after transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in mice.” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 83(4):603–11. Epub 9 May 2006.

92. Lu, B., Nagappan, G., Xiaoming, G., Pradeep J. N., & Wren, P. (2013). “BDNF-based synaptic repair as a disease-modifying strategy for neurodegenerative diseases.” Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 14:401–416. doi: 10.1038/nrn3505.

93. Hou, Y., Aboukhatwa, M. A., Lei, D., Manaye, K., Khan, I., and Luo, Y.* (May 2010). “Antidepressant natural flavonols modulate BDNF and beta amyloid in neurons and hippocampus of double TgAD mice.” Neuropharmacology. 58(6): 911–920. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2009.11.002. Epub 14 Nov 2009.

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